The daily need for flour is obviously a strategic product, which can be of a different type. Production of flour, it turns out demanded business. The modern market in this industry has a good raw material base in Russia. To do this, in storage is different grain: wheat, rye, and other grains.
This industry has its own specifics, this is reflected in the proper organization of its own flour-grinding enterprise, on which up to 50% of the success of the entire business depends. It is necessary to follow the technological processes and be able to process grain crops. Entrepreneurs are attracted to this type of activity by stable demand for products and consistency in profits.
Flour production - business organization
Flour production is based on the processing of cereals - a common concept, but in addition, you can simultaneously launch the production of feed additives, which include bone meal. This type of business activity is interesting in that flour can be processed into crops that are not in short supply in the region where the processing is carried out. In other words, when there is no wheat, you can work with corn or rye, other cultures.
It should be noted that by changing the raw materials it is necessary to use the changes in the production of flour. For this reason, experts initially recommend an entrepreneur to make a choice on which raw material base he will build his own business.
Flour mill enterprise of small production, according to experts, refers to a permanent, not a seasonal activity. Flour products: pasta, spaghetti, bread, and other products are bought all year.
The entrepreneur who decided to open a small flour-milling enterprise must understand that this is a technology with high quality control of the products produced, which is controlled from the arrival of grain to the output of the final product. It is quality flour that gives stability in the implementation of the final product. The entrepreneur of the milling business focuses mainly on bakeries, for this reason it is necessary to produce not one kind of flour, but several: the highest, the first, and so on, varieties that are determined by the quality of production.
Flour of the highest grade will always be in demand, it is consumed by all bakeries, but demand depends on its value, and flour of the second or third grade is always lower cost, which ultimately affects the final product, its value for the population. Flour production uses technologically complex lines, consider this in more detail.
Flour making technology
Flour production in Russia has a high degree of mechanization. It should be noted that Russia is a leader in the production of these products, for this reason, entrepreneurs can safely focus on domestic equipment for their small production.
The technological process of the flour mill in the preparation of the grain base is divided into two stages, it is:
Preparation of grain fractions for subsequent processing, this air conditioning and purification. Purification of cereals occurs in special devices, it is: separators, duaspiratory and triyerny devices, where the following occurs:
mineral components are removed from the grain mass with the help of stone separators;
moistening and washing the grain mass in special units.
When there is a need after quality control of work on the cleaning procedure, cycles to the desired quality can be repeated. The best level of purification of the grain mass is achieved with the use of special air sieve devices that separate weed and oil impurities.
Stone separators purify the grain mass from fractions of mineral origin and are used to distinguish in the grain mass of the main crop (wheat or other grain) from the ballast grain grain triers equipment, as well as magnetic separators (cleaning of metal particles).
The stage of cleaning the grain mass of its husks from dirt. There are two ways to do this cleaning: wet and dry when:
The dry method in its processes involves the use of a special scouring device, which consists of a flail drum located in a cylinder of steel. Cleaning takes place with the help of mutual friction and beating of grains; for dusty removal, these devices are supplied with aspirators;
the wet method of purifying the grain mass is most effective; for its use it is necessary to use water at the rate of two cubic meters per ton of grain mass, the disadvantage of this method is the necessity of cleaning the sewage into the sewage system.
Parameters of high-quality cleaning of the grain mass give in the technological process to produce less adjustments and settings of grain-processing units. To achieve this, the production is organized thermal and hydraulic processing of grain.
It is necessary to consider the parameters of the grain mass for the expected result of grinding, it is:
what is the moisture mass;
what is the level of the incoming gluten grain mass;
endosperm and grain cost.
The delivery of grain mass in organized batches improves the rejection of low-value grains that will not give the flour of the desired quality.
Grain processing processes
Flour production, as a business, is expensive in terms of energy and water consumption; the need to obtain better flour quality led to thermal pre-hydraulic treatment of the grain mass. This process makes it possible to efficiently extract the endosperm at a high level, and also reduces the required amount of electrical energy to obtain a grinding mixture.
Flour manufacturing techniques ─ in other words, grinding the endosperm and the grain shells, which are less ground than the endosperm. For this reason, they can be contrastively divided, and when the grain mass is dry, this difference drops sharply, so wetting in technology is necessary.
There are three types of wetting the grain mass, it is:
cold moistening of grain;
the most effective is conditioning in an accelerated way, when the mass of grains is moistened and the dampness passes in the bunker.
Accelerated conditioning of the grain mass gives the grain intensification by the structural and mechanical properties of the shell and endosperm.
Technological dampness of the grain mass provides for 30 minutes of moisture, when water during this time interval penetrates into the grain shell and the endosperm, its plasticization properties are improved.
How to cook grain for grinding
The modern small flour-milling enterprise cannot do without preliminary preparation of the grain mass. The technology of this process goes automatically through the stages of grain processing equipment, it is:
Preparatory processes using the automatic equipment of the grain mass for grinding.
Process, automated grinding of prepared grain into flour.
Packaging the resulting product.
It is at the first stage that the specialists recommend the entrepreneur to focus attention, choosing the equipment, the quality of the final product depends on it.
It is always recommended to organize batches of grain mass for optimal flour parameters before grinding. The batch may contain grains of different quality, which gives the parameters of the raw mass stability.
Equipment for flour production
Starting your own business in this niche of food production, you need to make a quality business plan, which includes the purchase of the necessary equipment. The own enterprise cannot do without an elevator, and the same aggregates of preliminary preparation of raw materials. The grain mass in the cleaning process passes it by 95%, then it enters the grinding devices.
For entrepreneurial activity, experts recommend a PTMA 4 grinding machine; it is capable of processing about one ton of grain in 60 minutes. The price of this equipment is up to 600 thousand rubles, and a mill (the main production unit) of the F 1 brand, which costs up to 450 thousand rubles, is recommended for it.
The mill Ф 1 is considered by the specialists to be an aggregate with high productivity, with its help they get flour from the second to the highest grade. It can process half a ton of grain in 60 minutes, has relatively small dimensions, it does not require a special reworking of the room.
For the full production of flour, you need to buy:
separators - screen and air;
industrial scales, worth up to 40 thousand rubles;
packing machine costs up to 25 thousand rubles;
quality control device, costs up to 30 thousand rubles.
How to equip the production
It is necessary to clearly understand how the whole line of the milling production process should look. From the recommended for the organization of small production, for the production of flour equipment create a sequence of its installation, taking into account the features of the device.
Experts recommend to divide all purchased equipment into three groups, it is:
purchased in 2016 complex of preliminary preparation of the grain mass;
the final process for the production of flour complex.
The first group consists of equipment for the preparation of grain mass for grinding, there are: devices for transporting grain, silos, cleaning units. Behind them are installed devices for thermal water treatment of the grain mass. This set of equipment is completed with a dosing and quality control device for the grain mass.
The main complex contains the most expensive equipment. It includes separators, screening devices, and roller machines. There is a whip aggregate and a brushing machine.
The final complex contains in its device the devices for weighing the produced flour, its dosing and the mixing device. In order to save money without filling machines set the storage tanks of flour and hire workers to pack the product.
Flour production room
Flour production has special requirements for the premises selected for this purpose, namely:
it must be disinfected, at least with hydrated lime;
availability of excellent ventilation;
the room must be dry, without rodents.
How to make food additives, flour
The food niche of small productions may attract a novice entrepreneur by organizing the production of fortified flour for livestock and poultry.
Experts recommend three types of such production, it is:
Coniferous flour, which is necessary as a vitamin supplement for livestock and poultry. Features of this production in the absence of strict quality control. You can use a mobile unit for these purposes. The principle of operation is as follows:
coniferous paw is fed into the bunker, where the needles are separated;
further raw, needles, dried, crushed;
then it is fed to a special device-bunker, where the grinding takes place.
To collect raw materials for the production of this type of flour should be in the autumn or winter. Storage occurs in compliance with the level of the fall of such an indicator as carotene. It is better to organize this business when there are many farms around.
Fish meal, it has a price of about 60% protein, as opposed to herbal (coniferous) flour. Raw materials for its production is fish or its waste. Preliminary preparation of the raw materials includes drying and removing fat, preferably using a vacuum device. The manufacturing steps are simpler than in flour, these are:
cooking of raw materials base;
the process of drying the raw material, its grinding;
vacuum fat removal, proteins and useful vitamins with trace elements are preserved.
Bone meal, the raw material of which is the bones of large animals, is used as an additive in feed for poultry and domestic animals, on farms. The value of the product in high content of phosphorus. Production is associated with a thorough inspection of raw materials by sanitary services, the process is:
primary grinding of raw materials;
drying followed by boiling;
grinding to obtain a single mass;
using centrifuges to separate fat and moisture by weight;
the entire cost of equipment up to 600 thousand rubles.
Here are the three most popular flour production as feed additives for cattle and poultry on farms. It is recommended to organize them in regions with developed farms and agricultural cooperatives.
The implementation of the product milling production
Flour production, as a business for a start-up entrepreneur, will not be an easy matter at the initial stage. Sales of finished products should be thought out at the stage of a business plan.
Experts recommend monitoring potential buyers in your own region, these are:
private bakeries, regional bakeries;
private confectionery manufacturers;
It is recommended in your region to have retail outlets selling your products in local markets.
Start-up funds for opening a flour mill as a whole will amount to about 2 million rubles, including:
modern equipment located in the premises - 1 million 450 thousand rubles;
repair and sanitary work on the selected premises - 200 thousand rubles;
purchase of raw materials - up to 300 thousand rubles;
marketing of organized production, registration of certificates and other documentation of a permissive nature - 50 thousand rubles;
monthly, for utility payments and rent - 100 thousand rubles;
remuneration of hired specialists - 150 thousand rubles.
The payback of production is calculated from the parameters of the output of finished products, this is 150 kilograms of flour in 60 minutes. The change of work of the enterprise is 12 hours, it is 1 ton 800 kilograms of finished products. Wholesale 1 kg of flour 16 rubles. So, according to simple calculations, the monthly income of production is 850 thousand rubles, we will make deductions for the acquisition of the raw material base and the remuneration of production specialists, we will receive about 300 thousand rubles purely.
According to such a scheme of work, experts say that the break-even point of production will be reached in 12 months, the profitability estimate up to 25%.
Studying the demand for products and establishing reliable distribution channels makes production successful.
How to make flour at home
For lovers of homemade cakes, experts say that at home, flour can be made from any grain.
It is necessary to follow some rules, it is
Drying and cleaning the selected amount of grain. This is achieved by washing and visual selection of bad grains. Rinse the grain mass must be several times, be sure to twice in warm water. It is necessary to dry on the spreading fabric, for the manufacture of more than a kilogram it is necessary to ventilate the room.
A coffee grinder is used for grinding, preferably with good power. An electric machine can make flour of the first grade, and manual grinding is more coarse. Finished flour should be dried on the prepared sheet for 30-40 hours, it will cease to stick to the hands and will become lighter in color.
You can store the resulting product in a paper bag; be sure to sift it before use.
Homemade flour can be used for diabetic fritters or bread. For baby food, in homemade cakes.
Flour production is a profitable niche of business activity when the organization of the enterprise is carried out correctly and the market has been pre-marketing with the conclusion of supply contracts. When starting your own business, always think over the question to whom you will sell the products, how many will be bought from you regionally, how much power you need to buy equipment, you need to take into account the stock for the development of production.